Jessica is the daughter of Shylock, a Jewish moneylender, in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice (c. 1598).In the play, she elopes with Lorenzo, a penniless Christian, and a chest of her father's money, eventually ending up in Portia and Bassanio's household. Part of the BBC's Shakespeare Festival, the play also marked that 500 years had passed since the Venetian Ghetto was instituted. The Duke then threatens to recant his pardon of Shylock's life unless he accepts these conditions. In love with Shylock’s daughter Jessica, he helps her run away from her father’s, with the aid of Graziano and Salerio. They cite as evidence that Shylock's "trial" at the end of the play is a mockery of justice, with Portia acting as a judge when she has no right to do so. The three pairs of lovers represent the comic ending. [10] The title page of the Quarto indicates that the play was sometimes known as The Jew of Venice in its day, which suggests that it was seen as similar to Marlowe's early 1590s work The Jew of Malta. Antonio has already antagonized Shylock through his outspoken antisemitism and because Antonio's habit of lending money without interest forces Shylock to charge lower rates. [23], Arthur Sullivan wrote incidental music for the play in 1871. The last suitor is Bassanio, whom Portia wishes to succeed, having met him before. For other uses, see. In Venice, a merchant named Antonio worries that his ships are overdue. Belmont. The Merchant of Venice Characters & Descriptions . About “The Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1” Relaxing at Belmont, Lorenzo and Jessica playfully compare themselves to famous lovers. [28], Kean and Irving presented a Shylock justified in wanting his revenge; Adler's Shylock evolved over the years he played the role, first as a stock Shakespearean villain, then as a man whose better nature was overcome by a desire for revenge, and finally as a man who operated not from revenge but from pride. One example is the Shakespeare-aficionado Chang in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991), a Klingon, who quotes Shylock. Antonio parts with his gloves without a second thought, but Bassanio gives the ring only after much persuasion from Antonio, as earlier in the play he promised his wife never to lose, sell or give it. [26], From Kean's time forward, all of the actors who have famously played the role, with the exception of Edwin Booth, who played Shylock as a simple villain, have chosen a sympathetic approach to the character; even Booth's father, Junius Brutus Booth, played the role sympathetically. [70], Naomi Alderman's The Wolf in the Water is a radio-play first broadcast on BBC Radio 3 in 2016. Character Sketch of Lorenzo in Merchant of Venice – ICSE Class 10, 9 English. The relationship between Lorenzo and Jessica is often overlooked when people talk about The Merchant of Venice… The great thing about Shakespeare and why he's so difficult to pin down is his ambiguity. Joseph Fiennes, however, who plays Bassanio, encouraged a homoerotic interpretation and, in fact, surprised Irons with the kiss on set, which was filmed in one take. Scene 1. At Belmont, Portia and Nerissa taunt and pretend to accuse their husbands before revealing they were really the lawyer and his clerk in disguise (V). Bassanio warns his companion to exercise self-control, and the two leave for Belmont. [16] Detractors note that Shylock ends the speech with a tone of revenge: "if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?" He has a great appreciation of nighttime and a deep love of music, but is not quick-witted enough to keep up with Lancelot’s wordplay. The Merchant of Venice ... Lorenzo then tells Gratiano that Jessica 's letter contained instructions on how to help her escape from her father's house, where she has stolen gold and jewels from Shylock to take with them. ", Even if Shakespeare did not intend the play to be read this way, the fact that it retains its power on stage for audiences who may perceive its central conflicts in radically different terms is an illustration of the subtlety of Shakespeare's characterisations. Shylock is at first reluctant to grant the loan, citing abuse he has suffered at Antonio's hand. To some critics, Shylock's celebrated "Hath not a Jew eyes?" [58] In this retelling, Shylock and Antonio are friends and share a disdain for the crass anti-Semitism of the Christian community's laws. If you prick us, do we not bleed? Edmond Haraucourt, French playwright and poet, was commissioned in the 1880s by the actor and theatrical director Paul Porel to make a French-verse adaptation of The Merchant of Venice. (Later, Thomas Heyes' son and heir Laurence Heyes asked for and was granted a confirmation of his right to the play, on 8 July 1619.) [62], In David Fincher's 1995 crime thriller Seven, a lawyer, Eli Gould, is coerced to remove a pound of his own flesh and place it on a scale, alluding to the play. The cast included. Lorenzo praises Portia for valuing true friendship by sending her husband to Venice for Antonio’s help without any delay. All of the characters come from those two plays with the exception of Jeff (a monkey); the gigantic simpleton Drool; and Pocket, the Fool, who comes from Moore's earlier novel Fool, based on King Lear. The Nazis used the usurious Shylock for their propaganda. May 31, 2020 by Vijay Kushwaha “Class 12 English” “The Merchant of Venice” Introduction UP Board Master for “Class 12 English” “The Merchant of Venice” Introduction are a part of UP Board Master for Class 12 English. A street. But what should be a happy ending is violated and broken by Antonio and Shylock. Poet John Donne, who was Dean of St Paul's Cathedral and a contemporary of Shakespeare, gave a sermon in 1624 perpetuating the Blood Libel – the entirely unsubstantiated anti-Semitic lie that Jews ritually murdered Christians to drink their blood and achieve salvation. Avenue to PORTIA’S house. Those who see the speech as sympathetic point out that Shylock says he learned the desire for revenge from the Christian characters: "If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? LORENZO In … He finally agrees to lend the sum to Bassanio without interest upon one condition: if Antonio were unable to repay it at the specified date, Shylock may take a pound of Antonio's flesh. The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; Portia is a fine example of a romantic heroine in Shakespeare’s mature comedies: she is witty, rich, exacting in what… In 1741, Charles Macklin returned to the original text in a very successful production at Drury Lane, paving the way for Edmund Kean seventy years later (see below). LitCharts Teacher Editions. [14], The depiction of Jews in literature throughout the centuries bears the close imprint of Shylock. As the court grants Shylock his bond and Antonio prepares for Shylock's knife, Portia deftly appropriates Shylock's argument for "specific performance". Unknown to Bassanio and Gratiano, Portia sent her servant, Balthazar, to seek the counsel of Portia's cousin, Bellario, a lawyer, at Padua. This version (which featured a masque) was popular, and was acted for the next forty years. [67], In the 2009 spy comedy OSS 117: Lost in Rio, a speech by the nazi Von Zimmel parodies Shylock's tirade. speech to his brother Władysław in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Nazi occupation in World War II. The title page of the first edition in 1600 states that it had been performed "divers times" by that date. He flees with her to Genoa, before moving on to Belmont at Salerio’s insistence, to help support Bassanio when the latter finds out about Antonio’s losses. Edward Petherbridge as Lorenzo in a 1972 BBC production of The Merchant of Venice, directed by Cedric Messina. With money in hand, Bassanio leaves for Belmont with his friend Gratiano, who has asked to accompany him. Shylock has Antonio brought before court. [61], Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List (1993) depicts SS Lieutenant Amon Göth quoting Shylock's "Hath Not a Jew eyes?" He has insulted the Jew and spat on him, yet he comes with hypocritical politeness to borrow money of him." "Shylock, however unintentionally, did, in fact, hazard all for the sake of destroying the enemy he hated, and Antonio, however unthinkingly he signed the bond, hazarded all to secure the happiness of the man he loved." The first suitor, the Prince of Morocco, chooses the gold casket, interpreting its slogan, "Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire", as referring to Portia. The same. I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all [9], Shakespeare's play may be seen as a continuation of this tradition. And featuring Maggie Smith as Portia. If you tickle us, do we not laugh? This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 10:00. Fiennes defended his choice, saying "I would never invent something before doing my detective work in the text. The play was mentioned by Francis Meres in 1598, so it must have been familiar on the stage by that date. Why, revenge. In his plays and poetry Shakespeare often depicted strong male bonds of varying homosociality, which has led some critics to infer that Bassanio returns Antonio's affections despite his obligation to marry:[19], ANTONIO: Commend me to your honourable wife: The Duke, wishing to save Antonio but unable to nullify a contract, refers the case to a visitor. In love with Shylock’s daughter Jessica, he helps her run away from her father’s, with the aid of Graziano and Salerio. Similar to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, the play occurs in the gaps between scenes of the canonical The Merchant of Venice, with the characters gradually recognizing how conflicts over assimilation and anti-Semitism recur throughout past, present, and future. [59], David Henry Wilson's play Shylock's Revenge, was first produced at the University of Hamburg in 1989, and follows the events in The Merchant of Venice. Bassanio does not want Antonio to accept such a risky condition; Antonio is surprised by what he sees as the moneylender's generosity (no "usance" – interest – is asked for), and he signs the contract. Over in Belmont in Scene vii, Morocco chooses the casket that says A) “Who chooseth me shall gain what many men JESSICA Nay, let me praise you while I have a stomach. If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. . The Christians in the courtroom urge Shylock to love his enemies, although they themselves have failed in the past. A court of justice. The play continues the story of Shylock's daughter Jessica, who lives in an anti-semitic Venice and practices her Jewish faith in secret. speech redeems him and even makes him into something of a tragic figure; in the speech, Shylock argues that he is no different from the Christian characters. There is one allusion to Venus in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. More important, however, he's the guy who hits the jackpot when he elopes with Jessica. Shylock has become more determined to exact revenge from Christians because his daughter Jessica eloped with the Christian Lorenzo and converted. The same. The date of composition of The Merchant of Venice is believed to be between 1596 and 1598. Scene 4. [11], Regardless of what Shakespeare's authorial intent may have been, the play has been made use of by antisemites throughout the play's history. In this film, Henryk Szpilman reads Shylock's "Hath Not a Jew eyes?" In the play's dramatic structure, Jessica is a minor but pivotal role.. The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio defaults on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. In addition to this Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Salerio. He demands his pound of flesh from Antonio. In this story, Antonio was a converted Jew. Bassanio and Gratiano leave for Venice, with money from Portia, to save Antonio's life by offering the money to Shylock. [73][74][75], This article is about Shakespeare's play. Gratiano is a likeable young man, but he is often flippant, overly talkative, and tactless. If you look at the choice of language ... you'll read very sensuous language. Are not with me esteemed above thy life; A date of 1596–97 is considered consistent with the play's style. This scene is set in Shylock’s house. However, Shylock adamantly refuses any compensations and insists on the pound of flesh. Rowe expressed doubts about this interpretation as early as 1709; Doggett's success in the role meant that later productions would feature the troupe clown as Shylock. [66], The Pianist is a 2002 film based on a memoir by Władysław Szpilman. It is difficult to know whether the sympathetic reading of Shylock is entirely due to changing sensibilities among readers – or whether Shakespeare, a writer who created complex, multi-faceted characters, deliberately intended this reading. As Bassanio ponders his choice, members of Portia's household sing a song that says that "fancy" (not true love) is "engend'red in the eyes, / With gazing fed";[2] Bassanio chooses the lead casket and wins Portia's hand. Characters (23 total) Click on a name to see all of that character's speeches. JESSICA 42 I wish your ladyship all heart's content. This is an engaging question, because the answer has probably changed over time. The doctor is Portia in disguise, and the law clerk who accompanies her is Nerissa, also disguised as a man. The Merchant of Venice PDF A full version of William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice text NoSweatShakespeare.com Making Shakespeare easy and accessible . By William Shakespeare. Productions of the play followed in Lübeck (1938), Berlin (1940), and elsewhere within the Nazi territory. Lorenzo is pals with Antonio and Bassanio. One of the last shots of the film also brings attention to the fact that, as a convert, Shylock would have been cast out of the Jewish community in Venice, no longer allowed to live in the ghetto. OPTIONS: … By entering your email address you agree to receive emails from Shmoop and verify that you are over the age of 13. ANTONIO ... LORENZO The reason is, your spirits are attentive: For do but note a wild and wanton herd, Or race of youthful and unhandled colts, [56][57], Arnold Wesker's play The Merchant (1976) is a reimagining of Shakespeare's story. Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. The play has inspired many adaptions and several works of fiction. All's Well That Ends Well Antony & Cleopatra As You Like It Comedy of Errors Coriolanus Cymbeline Double Falsehood Edward 3 Hamlet Henry 4.1 Henry 4.2 Henry 5 Henry 6.1 Henry 6.2 Henry 6.3 Henry 8 Julius Caesar King John King Lear King Richard 2 Love's Labour's Lost Macbeth Measure for Measure Merchant of Venice Merry Wives of Windsor Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing … Full text, summaries, illustrations, guides for reading, and more. The Merchant of Venice Shakespeare homepage | Merchant of Venice | Entire play ACT I SCENE I. Venice. [8] In Venice and in some other places, Jews were required to wear a red hat at all times in public to make sure that they were easily identified, and had to live in a ghetto. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. LORENZO In such a night Did Jessica steal from the wealthy Jew And with an unthrift love did run from Venice As far as Belmont. Bassanio approaches his friend Antonio, a wealthy merchant of Venice, who has previously and repeatedly bailed him out. Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary. Lorenzo. speech when deciding whether or not to rape his Jewish maid. ", "How do you make Shakespeare work on the radio?". As Balthazar, Portia in a famous speech repeatedly asks Shylock to show mercy, advising him that mercy "is twice blest: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes" (Act IV, Sc 1, Line 185). She cites a law under which Shylock, as a Jew and therefore an "alien", having attempted to take the life of a citizen, has forfeited his property, half to the government and half to Antonio, leaving his life at the mercy of the Duke. Salerino's reference to his ship the Andrew (I, i, 27) is thought to be an allusion to the Spanish ship St. Andrew, captured by the English at Cádiz in 1596. Also notable is Portia's speech about "the quality of mercy". (Auden sees the theme of usury in the play as a comment on human relations in a mercantile society. . Scene 5. [55], The rock musical Fire Angel was based on the story of the play, with the scene changed to the Little Italy district of New York. Overview Synopsis Characters Scenes Full Play Quarto 1 Reviews Documents. He identifies himself as Balthazar, a young male "doctor of the law", bearing a letter of recommendation to the Duke from the learned lawyer Bellario. Bassanio does not recognise his disguised wife, but offers to give a present to the supposed lawyer. The Merchant of Venice Act II Quiz 14. [27] Jacob Adler was the most notable of the early 20th century: Adler played the role in Yiddish-language translation, first in Manhattan's Yiddish Theater District in the Lower East Side, and later on Broadway, where, to great acclaim, he performed the role in Yiddish in an otherwise English-language production. Jewish critic Harold Bloom suggests that, although the play gives merit to both cases, the portraits are not even-handed: "Shylock's shrewd indictment of Christian hypocrisy delights us, but ... Shakespeare's intimations do not alleviate the savagery of his portrait of the Jew..."[18], Antonio's unexplained depression – "In sooth I know not why I am so sad" – and utter devotion to Bassanio has led some critics to theorise that he is suffering from unrequited love for Bassanio and is depressed because Bassanio is coming to an age where he will marry a woman. Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Summary, Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers. Whoever picks the right casket wins Portia's hand. Portia asks him to take charge of Belmont while she is gone on her retreat during Bassanio’s absence. Portia and Bassanio marry, as do Gratiano and Portia's handmaid Nerissa. Shylock's fatal flaw is to depend on the law, but "would he not walk out of that courtroom head erect, the very apotheosis of defiant hatred and scorn? Antonio has taken this potentially fatal turn because he despairs, not only over the loss of Bassanio in marriage but also because Bassanio cannot requite what Antonio feels for him. The second suitor, the conceited Prince of Aragon, chooses the silver casket, which proclaims, "Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves", as he believes he is full of merit. In this play Shylock gets his wealth back and becomes a Jew again. Critics today still continue to argue over the play's stance on the Jews and Judaism. Her father left a will stipulating that each of her suitors must choose correctly from one of three caskets, made of gold, silver and lead respectively. Answers 1 Add Yours. Exeunt. Whether Bassanio had not once a love. Caldecott, Henry Stratford (1895). [24], Jewish actor Jacob Adler and others report that the tradition of playing Shylock sympathetically began in the first half of the 19th century with Edmund Kean,[25] and that previously the role had been played "by a comedian as a repulsive clown or, alternatively, as a monster of unrelieved evil." Antonio cannot afford the loan. LORENZO 41 Fair thoughts and happy hours attend on you! Revenge. Exeunt [Jessica and Lorenzo]. Read Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, Act 2, scene 4 for free from the Folger Shakespeare Library! LORENZO No, pray thee, let it serve for table-talk; ' Then, howso'er thou speak'st, 'mong other things I shall digest it. Lorenzo Merchant of Venice | Merchant of Venice Characters Lorenzo Character Sketch of Lorenzo in Merchant of Venice Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers LORENZO a minor character in the play a man of culture romantic bent of mind a sincere and devoted lover a dependable person philosophical temperament a good judge of human nature Lorenzo ... Read more Character Sketch of Lorenzo in Merchant … She says that the contract allows Shylock to remove only the flesh, not the blood, of Antonio (see quibble). Setting : Belmont Characters : Lorenzo, Portia, Nerissa. She tells him that he must cut precisely one pound of flesh, no more, no less; she advises him that "if the scale do turn, But in the estimation of a hair, Thou diest and all thy goods are confiscate.". What's that good for? Michael Radford, director of the 2004 film version starring Al Pacino, explained that, although the film contains a scene where Antonio and Bassanio actually kiss, the friendship between the two is platonic, in line with the prevailing view of male friendship at the time. One interpretation of the play's structure is that Shakespeare meant to contrast the mercy of the main Christian characters with the Old Testament vengefulness of a Jew, who lacks the religious grace to comprehend mercy. Although classified as a comedy in the First Folio and sharing certain aspects with Shakespeare's other romantic comedies, the play is most remembered for its dramatic scenes, and it is best known for Shylock and his famous "Hath not a Jew eyes?" (IV, i), In his essay "Brothers and Others", published in The Dyer's Hand, W. H. Auden describes Antonio as "a man whose emotional life, though his conduct may be chaste, is concentrated upon a member of his own sex." [71][72], Sarah B. Mantell's Everything that Never Happened is a play first produced in 2017 at the Yale School of Drama. First she declines, but after he insists, Portia requests his ring and Antonio's gloves. A) leaving Shylock B) catching the casket of ducats and jewels she throws out the window C) marriage D) becoming a Christian 15. Enter BASSANIO, LORENZO, and GRATIANO SALANIO Here comes Bassanio, your most noble kinsman, Gratiano and Lorenzo. Belmont. Lorenzo in The Merchant of Venice. This introduces the sub-plot of Lorenzo- Jessica love story. Hath not a Jew eyes? Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice broken down into key moments. Kean's Shylock established his reputation as an actor. Meanwhile, in Belmont, Portia is awash with suitors. Braham Murray directed. A court of justice. Venice produces merchants such as Antonio, whereas Belmont produces Lorenzo, a lazy beggar. JESSICA Well, I'll set you forth. Why, revenge. Speeches (Lines) for Lorenzo in "Merchant of Venice" Total: 47. print/save view. I don't think they have slept together but that's for the audience to decide."[20]. PORTIA 43 I thank you for your wish, and am well pleased 44 To wish it back on you: fare you well Jessica. The earliest performance of which a record has survived was held at the court of King James in the spring of 1605, followed by a second performance a few days later, but there is no record of any further performances in the 17th century. Merchant of Venice What is written on the letter to Lorenzo from Jessica? In such a night JESSICA: Did young Lorenzo swear he loved her well, Stealing her soul with many vows of faith, And ne'er a true one. English Maths Physics Chemistry Biology. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Shortly after Kristallnacht in 1938, The Merchant of Venice was broadcast for propagandistic ends over the German airwaves. Venice. The Merchant of Venice (2004) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more. "[65], One of the four short stories comprising Alan Isler's The Bacon Fancier (1999) is also told from Shylock's point of view. Previous Next . Henry Irving's portrayal of an aristocratic, proud Shylock (first seen at the Lyceum in 1879, with Portia played by Ellen Terry) has been called "the summit of his career". Fare ye well: We leave you now with better company. Having squandered his estate, he needs 3,000 ducats to subsidise his expenditures as a suitor. Lorenzo (Merchant of Venice) Jessica (Merchant of Venice) Drabble Collection; Fluff; Hurt/Comfort; Summary. A summary of Part X (Section3) in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Portia says the Duke may waive the state's share, but not Antonio's. LORENZO: In such a night Did Jessica steal from the wealthy Jew, And with an unthrift love did run from Venice As far as Belmont . He hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million, laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies – and what's his reason? Thus, if Shylock were to shed any drop of Antonio's blood, his "lands and goods" would be forfeited under Venetian laws. The climax of the play is set in the court of the Duke of Venice. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. The Duke spares Shylock's life and says he may remit the forfeiture. Both Antonio and Shylock, agreeing to put Antonio's life at a forfeit, stand outside the normal bounds of society. His Achievement in Winning the Heart of a Jewish Girl. It was printed again in 1619, as part of William Jaggard's so-called False Folio. JESSICA In such a night Did young Lorenzo swear he loved her well, Stealing her soul with many vows of faith And ne'er a true one. 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