Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., & McKee, A. They then can hold teachers, students, and themselves responsible for the results (Ruebling, Stow, Kayona, & Clarke, 2004). Fulfilling these multiple responsibilities well requires principals to possess an inner compass that consistently points them toward the future interests of the school, never losing sight of their schools' visions, missions, and goals. As such, instructional leadership sets a tone that supports continual professional learning and promotes the instructional climate. Recruiting top-performing principals and rewarding good principal performance are both important. Further, Friend and Cook (2007) observe that “teaming is the most frequently advocated structure for implementing school To a certain extent, a school leader's effectiveness in creating a culture of sustained change will be determined by the leaders he or she leaves behind. The good news for most of us is that charismatic leaders are actually a liability for sustained improvement. Fink, E., & Resnick, L. (2001, April). Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, by James H. Stronge, Holly B. Richard and Nancy Catano. (2001). More recently, the emphasis of leadership development has been on enhancing instructional leadership, drawing on a range of research by authors including Dempster et al. Focusing on relationships isn't just a matter of boosting achievement scores for next year, but rather a means of laying the foundation for year two and beyond. For example, school leadership has an effect size of 0.39, but when you take out the moderators of transfor - mational leadership versus instructional leadership, you will find that transformational leadership has an effect size of 0.11, while instructional leadership’s effect size is … Fullan, M. (1999). Address Having innovative ideas and understanding the change process are not the same thing. Additionally, principals are in the best position to help teachers improve in areas of weakness and can accomplish this through observations and dialogue that shows respect for teachers as professionals (Cooper, Ehrensal, & Bromme, 2005). Leaders with deep moral purpose provide guidance, but they can also have blinders if their ideas are not challenged through the dynamics of change, the give-and-take of relationships, and the ideas generated by new knowledge. Also crucial to sustained improvement is the effective succession of leaders. School leaders with moral purpose seek to make a difference in the lives of students. Effective principals skillfully gather information that determines how well a school organization is meeting goals and use that information to refine strategies designed to meet or extend the goals. PriceWaterhouseCoopers. Consequently, today's principals concentrate on building a vision for their schools, sharing leadership with teachers, and influencing schools to operate as learning communities. London: Author. School improvement depends on principals who can foster the conditions necessary for sustained education reform in a complex, rapidly changing society. Alexandria, VA 22311-1714. The lessons of leadership. Ultimately, many principals spend too little time in classrooms or analyzing instruction with teachers. 1703 North Beauregard St. Spillane, Hallett and Diamond (2003) asserts that instructional leadership is an influence relationship that motivates, enables, and supports teachers’ efforts to learn and change their instructional practices. Likewise, Fullan (1991) considers instructional leadership to be an active, collaborative form Beyond the ability to successfully gather and analyze school data, principals need to possess basic skills for using these data for setting directions, developing people, and reinventing the organization. This leader works hard to develop the full range of emotional intelligence domains, especially self-management of emotions and empathy toward others (Goleman et al., 2002). Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. Doing so will lead to coherence within a school and offer better opportunities to sustain results. the leadership practice with which [heads] felt most uncomfortable” (Kouzes and Posner 1996, p.24) while Fullan (1992a, p.83) adds that “vision building is a highly sophisticated dynamic process which few organisations can sustain”. ... (Fullan, 2001). THE CHANGING ROLE OF THE HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPAL: INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN AN ERA OF INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY A thesis presented by Brian K. Reagan to The School of Education ... Fullan (2010) discussed “intelligent accountability,” a term he believes was first used by Furthermore, how will you know when and how to take corrective action along the way? Teaching in the knowledge society. Coherence is an essential component of complexity and yet can never be completely achieved. Continuous improvement requires an examination of the data (Fullan, 2005). And a valuable byproduct for principals who collaboratively focus on instructional leadership is that they are less likely to burn out (Marks & Printy, 2003). The single factor common to successful change is that relationships improve. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. They strive to protect instructional time by removing issues that would detract teachers from their instructional responsibilities (Marzano et al., 2005). Today's principals must become role models for learning while continually (or at least regularly) seeking tools and ideas that foster school improvement (Lashway, 2003). Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, May 2002 | Volume 59 | Number 8 They also create opportunities for teachers to work together and share teaching practices with one another. Keeping staff informed about current research and practice and possessing a belief system that schools are learning communities are crucial to school success. We will not have a large pool of quality principals until we have a large pool of quality teachers because quality teachers form the ranks of the quality principal pipeline. Characterizing instructional leadership as the principal's central role has been a valuable first step in increasing student learning, but it does not go far enough. Effective principals also serve as participatory learners with their staffs (Prestine & Nelson, 2003). They challenge their staff to reexamine assumptions about their work and how it can be performed. district? Cultural Change Principals display palpable energy, enthusiasm, and hope. Effective principals model behaviors that they expect of school staff (Marzano et al., 2005). Simply put, schooling is organized around two key functions: (1) teaching and learning, and (2) organizing for teaching and learning. As part of this collaborative process, teacher leaders provide valuable insight and ideas to principals as they work together toward school improvement. Involvement in curriculum, instruction, and assessment are crucial to the idea of instructional leadership. Principals are in a good position to support teacher effectiveness through observations and conversations with teachers (Cooper et al., 2005). They appreciate the creative potential of diverse ideas, but they strive to focus energy and achieve greater alignment. Learning out of context takes place when principals go to a workshop or conference. Advocates that principals serve as change agents who transform the teaching and learning culture of the school. If relationships improve, schools get better. For example, information is gathered to diagnose student learning and to prescribe interventions that will best support students in need (Education Commission of the States, 2002). ', 'You can’t talk your way out of what you’ve behaved yourself into” … Appreciate the implementation dip. (in press). Useful and properly mined data can inform staff about the gaps between desired outcomes and the reality of the results. Furthermore, this knowledge should result in changes in practice. Building Capacity with Connections to School Executive Standards 2. Sustained improvement of schools is not possible unless the whole system is moving forward. Such a principal also works to develop other leaders in the school to prepare the school to sustain and even advance reform after he or she departs. FLC 7 Professional Perspectives: Instructional Leadership 1 Professional Perspectives: Instructional Leadership INSTRUCTOR OF RECORD COURSE DESCRIPTION Dr. Danielle Fullan Kolton dfullankolton@mbteach.org (204) 461-0651 Participants in this course will have the opportunity to explore And how will you know when you've arrived at the destination? Subscribe to ASCD Express, our free email newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your email inbox twice a month. Learning at work—learning in context—occurs, for example, when principals are members of a district's intervisitation study team for which they examine real problems—and the solutions they have devised—in their own systems. 1703 North Beauregard St. Schools need principals who strive to ensure the quality of instruction in their schools (Harris, 2007; Marzano et al., 2005; Portin et al., 2003). Cultural Change Principals display palpable energy, enthusiasm, and hope. Also, they spend more years in the classroom before entering their first administrative post and, consequently, may possess greater knowledge in instructional matters (Cotton, 2003; Hallinger, Bickman, & Davis, 1996). All rights reserved. Our concern is the depletion of resources in the social and moral environment (Hargreaves, in press). The Six Secrets of Change (see . Much change is structural and superficial. Principals need to function as the chief instructional leader of their school while balancing multiple responsibilities. They strive to become a learner among learners. Today, most school lead-ers seek a balance in their role as manager-administrator and instructional leader. and others don't. . Highly successful principals develop and count on the expertise of teacher leaders to improve school effectiveness (Leithwood et al., 2004). INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE 21ST CENTURY TEACHING BEGINS WITH THE LEARNER THE DAVID O. MCKAY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION and THE BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY–PUBLIC SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP PRESENT THE 10th BIENNIAL CONFERENCE KEYNOTE SPEAKER Michael Fullan is professor emeritus of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University … Additionally, distributing leadership throughout a school and providing for leadership succession are indispensable to a school's success (Hargreaves & Fink, 2003). The other characteristics of the change leader—moral purpose, an understanding of the change process, the ability to build relationships, and the creation and sharing of knowledge—help forge coherence through the checks and balances embedded in their interaction. Address Instructional leadership requires a broader view that incorporates the expertise of teachers (Fullan, 2002). A norm of sharing one's knowledge with others is the key to continual growth for all. Thus, leaders build relationships with diverse people and groups—especially with people who think differently. The role of the principal as instructional leader has taken us only so far in the quest for continual school improvement. Never has the time been riper for change leaders than right now. Principal-leaders should work to transform teachers' working conditions. To summarize, principals—that is, effective principals—support instructional activities and programs by modeling expected behaviors and consistently prioritizing instructional concerns day-to-day. Additionally, if their schools are moving in the right direction, they model effective leading and learning. deeper matter of ‘leadership and sustainability’. Are we reducing the gap between high-performing and lower-performing students in this school? state? There is no step-by-step shortcut to transformation; it involves the hard, day-to-day work of reculturing. Goals for Today: • Explore the role of an Instructional Leader • Review the impact an Instructional Leader has on student achievement • Examine the challenges an Instructional Leader faces • Help each other consider different ways to think about our challenges Primal leadership. Additionally, good principals foster the idea of working together as a valuable enterprise because they understand that this kind of collaborative learning community ultimately will build trust, collective responsibility, and a schoolwide focus on improved student learning (Prestine & Nelson, 2003). They ensure that student progress is monitored through the continual aggregation and disaggregation of student performance data that are directly related to the school's mission and goals. Effective leadership sets the direction and influences members of the organization to work together toward meeting organizational goals. Many proponents of school improvement stress the importance of data-driven decision making. This kind of learning is designed to improve the organization and its social and moral context. They hold high expectations that teachers and students will meet these goals and hold themselves accountable for the success of the school. Leaders can't avoid the inevitable early difficulties of trying something new. Teachers who work with the Cultural Change Principal know that they are engaged in scientific discovery and the refinement of the teaching knowledge base. Principals of high-achieving schools are confident that they will accomplish their vision and goals despite challenges and setbacks and, thus, serve as role models for staff and students (Cotton, 2003). The Cultural Change Principal's efforts to motivate and energize disaffected teachers and forge relationships among otherwise disconnected teachers can have a profound effect on the overall climate of the organization. Having the best ideas is not enough. London: Department for Education and Skills. including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Fullan maintains that a theory is a way of organizing ideas that seems to make sense of the world—i.e. 51% OFF the cover price. The demands that accompany high-stakes testing compel principals to guide their schools to learn from their results and experiences. When the goal is sustainable change in a knowledge society, business and education leaders increasingly have more in common. For the first time, data was being used to drive instructional deci-sions. Phone Phone Teachers and principals feel it is important to have someone to steer the curriculum and prioritize staff development (Portin et al., 2003). A successful principal must have a clear vision that shows how all components of a school will operate at some point in the future. In 2001, PriceWaterhouseCoopers published the results of a teacher workload study they had conducted in England and Wales. Learning in context helps produce such leaders. Thus, we need leaders who can create a fundamental transformation in the learning cultures of schools and of the teaching profession itself. Those concerned about the depletion of resources in the physical environment were the first to discuss the issue of sustainability. The Cultural Change Principal is the lead learner in the school and models lifelong learning by sharing what he or she has read lately, engaging in and encouraging action research, and implementing inquiry groups among the staff. Information, of which we have a glut, only becomes knowledge through a social process. A summary of key indicators of the role of effective principals and gathering and using data in their schools is listed on the next page: Related Resources: Brimijoin, Marquisse, & Tomlinson, 2003; Guskey, 2003; Marzano, 2003; Parsons, 2003; Schmoker, 2003. We now must raise our sights and focus on principals as leaders in a culture of change. Sustainability depends on many leaders—thus, the qualities of leadership must be attainable by many, not just a few. (Killian, 2015). There are good reasons to focus on school leadership. One major emphasis in the educational arena in the early 21st century has been the continuing demand for greater accountability to increase student performance. When staff members assume an active role in the data analysis process, it promotes solutions and actions for improving results (Zmuda et al., 2004), and facilitating the active involvement of all staff in information gathering and analysis is the prerogative of the principal. Effective school leaders are key to large-scale, sustainable education reform. (2002). Principals support instructional activities and programs by modeling expected behaviors, participating in staff development (as noted earlier), and consistently prioritizing instructional concerns on a day-to-day basis. Innovating selectively with coherence is better. Redefine resistance. These principals provide emotional support for teachers and are viewed as possessing the ability to foster positive interpersonal relationships. Moral purpose is social responsibility to others and the environment. From the standpoint of sustainability, the principalship itself benefits from these improved conditions: We will only get quality principals when we have quality teachers. Resources Available - Concept Attainment Concept Attainment is a strategy that creates opportunities for students to think for themselves. In school everybody can be a leader but the school principal is the most important and influential individual in any school. Sustaining instructional leadership . In an effort to infuse instructional know-how across the entire faculty, the concept of an instructional leader needs to become broadened beyond that of increasing student learning. London: Taylor & Francis/Falmer. This is especially important when principals are faced with removing ineffective teachers. In turn, to mobilize teachers, we must improve teachers' working conditions and morale. School principals who focus on a vision for their schools nurture the leadership capabilities of their teachers. Learning in context also establishes conditions conducive to continual development, including opportunities to learn from others on the job, the daily fostering of current and future leaders, the selective retention of good ideas and best practices, and the explicit monitoring of performance. ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Fullan, Michael. instructional leadership as an option to a necessity for school administrators (Murphy, 2008; Silva, White, & Yoshida, 2011). Elmore, R. (2000). Elsewhere, Fullan (1992b) is even more critical, Student learning is paramount to the Cultural Change Principal. To ensure deeper learning—to encourage problem solving and thinking skills and to develop and nurture highly motivated and engaged learners, for example—requires mobilizing the energy and capacities of teachers. The best possible instructional leadership cannot be accomplished simply by having a leadership framework of effective leadership practices and personal leadership resources in place. What is the role of public schools in a democracy? Developing principals as instructional leaders. Principals of high-achieving schools communicate to all stakeholders that learning is the school's most important mission (Cotton, 2003; Marzano et al., 2005). Elementary school principals who focus on school leadership schoolwide—and even communitywide—commitment to elements! Successful principals understand that they can not reach instructional goals virtually impossible system... And instructional leadership fullan professional growth’ deep, comprehensive moral purpose seek to make difference... 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